Что делать, если в дороге неожиданно начал стучать двигатель?

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Многие автомобилисты хоть раз в жизни, но сталкиваются с проблемой, когда мотор начинает стучать. Владельцы автомобилей сразу задумываются: как долго можно ездить с подобными стуками и сколько будет стоить необходимый ремонт двигателя. В нашей статье мы постараемся разобраться, что делать, если начал стучать двигатель.

Стук в двигателе

Первым делом нужно выяснить, в чем же причина появления неприятного шума из двигателя. Узнав ответ на этот вопрос, мы легко сможем вычислить возможность дальнейшей эксплуатации машины с этой неисправностью, а также определим стоимость будущего ремонта.

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К сожалению, точно определить причину возникновения стука без разборки мотора затруднительно. Даже опытный моторист может ошибиться с поставленным диагнозом, а простой автолюбитель так и подавно. Но все же, давайте попробуем разобраться в причинах появления стуков.

Причины появления стуков в автомобильном двигателе

Практически всегда стук в двигателе появляется в зоне сопряжения металлических деталей при увеличении между ними максимально допустимого зазора. Слышимая шумность, при условиях нормальной смазки, возникает при зазорах, которые где-то в два раза больше от максимально допустимых величин. Чем больше будет зазор между сопрягаемыми деталями, тем громче будет стучать ваш мотор.

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Очевидно, что стучащий звук в двигателе – это биение одной детали мотора об другую. Соответственно, это говорит о том, что в местах ударения возникают высокие механические нагрузки, которые постепенно разрушают поверхности этих деталей. Причем скорость разрушения напрямую зависит от силы удара. Чем удар сильнее, тем быстрее разрушится деталь. Ну а сила удара уже зависит от величины зазора. И получается, что с увеличением зазора, сила удара и износ деталей будет только расти.

Скорость разрушения деталей зависит от многих факторов:

- конструкции сопрягаемых деталей;

- величине нагрузок;

- условий охлаждения и смазки двигателя.

Исходя из этих факторов, одни детали способны проработать на протяжении тысяч километров пробега после того, как двигатель начал издавать стучащие звуки, а другие, наоборот: после появления стука выходят из строя буквально через несколько десятков или сотен километров пробега.

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В некоторых случаях стук появляется в сопряжении деталей с нормальным зазором. Такое появление шумов может вызываться большими нагрузками или перекосами деталей. После устранения неблагоприятного фактора все шумовые проблемы пропадают.

Ваш мотор начал издавать стучащие звуки – это повод к скорейшему проведению диагностики. От правильного диагноза зависит объем ремонтных работ. Возможно, для выполнения ремонта придется полностью разобрать двигатель, а быть может, потребуется лишь частичная разборка этого агрегата.

Стук в холодном двигателе

Бывает, заводишь холодный двигатель и слышишь стуки в нем, а проходит время, он прогревается и шумы пропадают. Причин для появления такого звука много, но главное, что это не страшно, с такими постукиваниями можно спокойно ездить, только надо перед поездкой хорошо прогревать двигатель.

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Обычно такой «блуждающий» стук появляется и пропадает в двигателях, которые имеют естественный износ деталей. При нагреве двигателя, его внутренние детали расширяются и занимают нормальные зазоры.

Стук в горячем двигателе

В пути вы с такой проблемой вряд ли справитесь. Можно лишь проверить уровень моторного масла и при надобности долить его до номинального уровня. Возможно, что появившийся стук был связан с недостатком смазки.

При движении вы можете выяснить, что происходит с застучавшим двигателем под нагрузкой и отследить, как он прогрессирует в пути. Если мотор будет сильнее стучать при нагрузке и со временем движения, то, вероятнее всего, проблема заключается в подшипниках коленчатого вала. С таким дефектом продолжать движение опасно – двигатель быстро выйдет из строя, а вас будет ждать дорогостоящий ремонт.

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Разного рода «затухающие» стучащие звуки, которые начал издавать мотор вашего автомобиля, обычно не так опасны и позволяют добраться до ремонтной мастерской. Заметим, что в некоторых случаях такие стуки могут проявляться в двигателе без видимых изменений на протяжении десятков тысяч километров. Главным фактором, определяющим дальнейшую судьбу двигателя, является интенсивность нарастания стука. Если громкость и интенсивность появления стучащих звуков нарастает, движение автомобиля необходимо прекратить. Дальнейшая его эксплуатация может привести к серьезным поломкам.

Для правильного диагностирования «стучащего» мотора иногда важную роль играет определение того, как изменяется стук при эксплуатации машины. Некоторые стучащие звуки остаются без изменений на протяжении долгого времени, а другие, наоборот, очень быстро прогрессируют как по шумности, так и по интенсивности. Определившись с этим признаком, вы сможете существенно сузить круг вероятных причин вашей неисправности.

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