Когда следует поменять фильтры в машине

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Фильтры автомобиля –его «легкие», поэтому очень важно следить за их своевременной заменой. От состояния этих деталей зависит очень многое:

  • работа двигателя;
  • нормальное функционирование трансмиссии;
  • здоровье пассажиров и водителя авто.

Если забыть вовремя заменить хотя бы один из фильтров – это может привести к серьезной поломке в машине вплоть до ее полного выхода из строя и необходимости дорогостоящего ремонта.

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Давайте более детально разберемся в том, для чего нужны фильтры, и как их можно поменять, не обращаясь в автосервис.

Для чего нужен?

В машине есть несколько видов фильтров, и каждый из них выполняет свою, очень важную функцию:

  1. Масляный – очищает моторное и трансмиссионное масла;
  2. Воздушный – защищает двигатель автомобиля от пыли и абразивных частиц, уменьшает шум мотора, равномерно распределяет воздушный поток, а также снижает вероятность проникновения воды в поршневую группу;
  3. Салонный – не допускает пыль, пыльцу растений и более крупный мусор внутрь машины;
  4. Топливный – очищает горючее от различных примесей;
  5. Сажевый – используется в дизельных автомобилях и предназначен для предотвращения попадания в окружающую среду сажи и твердых частиц, которые могут содержаться в выхлопе.

Все фильтры (кроме сажевого) имеют определенный ресурс и подлежат периодической замене.

Сроки замены расходников в автомобиле

Масляный фильтр меняют одновременно с заменой масла. Как правило, интервал между обслуживаниями составляет 10 000-15 000 км пробега. К выбору этого расходника  следует относиться серьезно – сегодня на рынке существует очень много подделок и первый и самый явный признак контрафактной продукции – это необыкновенно низкая цена. На внешний вид подделка может ничем не отличаться от оригинала, поэтому приобретать запчасти лучше в специализированных магазинах. Всемирно признанные производители масляных фильтров – Knecht, Union и Mann.

Примечание: последствия использования поддельного некачественного расходника вовсе не безобидны. Неисправный аварийный клапан может пустить масло мимо, а это чревато преждевременным износом двигателя. Также клапан может заклинить, отчего корпус фильтра лопнет и масло вытечет. Такое случается обычно при минусовых температурах (ниже -30°С).

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В современных автомобилях с АКПП устанавливаются фильтры для трансмиссионного масла. Замену этих деталей следует проводить каждые 30 000 км. В картерах коробок более старых машин с автоматической трансмиссией стоят железные расходники, которые не меняют, а моют, когда приходит время поменять трансмиссионное масло.

Воздушный фильтр

Эта расходная деталь меняется, как правило, во время очередного техобслуживания в сервисном центре (рекомендовано производителем). Но если вы часто ездите по пыльным дорогам, поменять фильтр, возможно, придется и раньше. Если упустить момент необходимости замены этой детали, есть риск погубить двигатель.

Для того, чтобы проверить состояние воздушного фильтра вовсе не обязательно обращаться в сервис, достаточно всего лишь открыть капот, достать и осмотреть деталь (практически в любой машине крышка кожуха фильтра крепится посредством защелок, которые легко снимаются). Опытные автомобилисты проверяют состояние воздушного фильтра каждый раз, когда заглядывают под капот, чтобы измерить уровень масла.

Сегодня в автомагазинах можно встретить «нулевые» фильтры. Обычно они используются в спортивных автомобилях, и установка такой детали на обычную машину не имеет никакого смысла, поскольку без специальной форсировки «нулевик» не даст двигателю никаких преимуществ.

Некоторые автомобилисты в стремлении сэкономить моют воздушный фильтр вместо того, чтобы его поменять, и это – их главная ошибка. Грязь и пыль таким способом не удалить, зато после мытья волокна фильтрующего элемента утрачивают способность пропускать воздух.

Самым лучшим салонным фильтром по праву считается угольный – он задерживает не только пыль и грязь, но и нейтрализует неприятные запахи. Однако следует помнить, что ресурс этой детали не безграничен, и рано или поздно его придется поменять.

Кроме того, салонный фильтр выполняет еще одну важную функцию – предохраняет испаритель кондиционера от попадания мусора.

При эксплуатации автомобиля в условиях мегаполиса салонный фильтр забивается гораздо быстрее, чем через 10 000 км пробега. Если в вашей машине стоит угольный фильтр, то время его замены вы сможете определить по появлению посторонних запахов в салоне.

Топливный фильтр

Данный вид автомобильного фильтра в современных машинах имеет два вида:

  • магистральный;
  • погружной.
  1. Магистральный может находиться в любом месте между топливным баком и двигателем, погружной же устанавливается непосредственно в бензобак (как и бензонасос).  Известно, что качество топлива в большинстве случаев не соответствует желаемому, поэтому менять топливный фильтр следует строго в соответствии с рекомендациями производителя (можно даже чаще, но никак не реже). Последствиями халатного отношения к срокам замены этой детали могут привести к ремонту всего двигателя. В зависимости от завода-изготовителя периодичность замены топливного фильтра варьируется от 20 до 25 тысяч км пробега. 
  2. Сажевые фильтры – самоочищающиеся, а соответственно менять их не нужно. Очищение происходит при постинжекции, команду к которой дает бортовой компьютер.

Случается, что компьютер дает сбой и тогда сажевый фильтр засоряется. В этом случае загорается лампочка на контрольной панели, компьютер выдает ошибку «неисправность двигателя». В этом случае фильтр необходимо почистить.


Существует два способа чистки:

  1. Электрохимический (выполняется на специальном стенде в сервисном центре).
  2. При помощи диагностического компьютера.

Второй способ намного дешевле и времени занимает совсем немного – всего 20 минут. Задается режим «принудительная постинжекция» и вскоре фильтр вновь работает, как новый.
 
Точных рекомендаций относительно сроков замены автомобильных фильтров не даст ни один производитель, поэтому каждый заботливый хозяин должен следить за состоянием своего авто самостоятельно. Относитесь к своей машине с должным вниманием, и она отплатит вам долгой безупречной службой.

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