Почему стучат инжекторы двигателя

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В процессе эксплуатации автомобиля все его системы загрязняются и со временем выходят из строя. Не является исключением и топливная система. На ее главных элементах – инжекторах, топливопроводах, регуляторе давления, топливной рейке и выпускных клапанах со временем осаждаются частички грязи, которые попадают в систему вместе с бензином. К примеру, на распылители инжекторов грязь активно попадает в течение 1-2 минут, после остановки двигателя (пока все узлы мотора горячие). Дело в том, что легкие фракции бензина быстро улетучиваются, а тяжелые элементы, входящие в состав горючего, осаживаются на поверхности инжекторов. Со временем их количество возрастает до такой степени, что инжекторы перестают выполнять свои функции. Ну а водитель задается вопросом, почему стучат инжекторы двигателя и автомобиль теряет мощность.

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Ни для кого не секрет, что качество топлива, которым мы «кормим» наши двигатели, оставляет желать лучшего. Отечественный бензин включает в свой состав разнообразные примеси, которые повышают октановое число, а также бензол, олефин, соединения серы, воду и просто грязь. В процессе горения такого бензина образуется большое количество вредных смолянистых отложений, которые остаются в топливных магистралях, а также попадают в инжекторы. Эти отложения образуют коричневую корку и шлаковые наросты на стенках деталей топливной системы, тем самым ухудшая подачу топлива к камере сгорания двигателя.

Признаки загрязнения инжекторов:

- двигатель «троит» и форсунки стучат как у старого «дизеля»;

- пуск двигателя затруднен (автомобиль заводится со второй – третьей попытки);

- при резком нажатии на акселератор ощущается некий провал;

- потеря мощности и ухудшенный разгон автомобиля;

- подергивание автомобиля при разгоне, связанное с пропусками воспламенения топливной смеси,

- увеличенный расход топлива.

При продолжительной эксплуатации автомобиля с загрязненными инжекторами, которые стучат и вызывают появление вышеуказанных симптомов, могут появиться неприятные последствия. Их можно разделить на три стадии.

Первая стадия. При пробеге автомобиля от 10 до 30 тысяч километров. Появляются провалы при ускорении автомобиля, теряется общая мощность и увеличивается расход топлива.

Вторая стадия. Отсчитывается после тридцати тысяч километров пробега. На фоне растущей потери мощности, повреждаются узлы высоковольтной части зажигания. Двигатель очень тяжело заводится, а при низких температурах вообще может не завестись. На тарелках клапанов накапливаются шлаковые отложения и нагар. Из-за неэффективного сгорания топливно-воздушной смеси, в системе накапливаются отложения шлаков и сажи. Все это оседает в катализаторе и на кислородном датчике. В итоге датчик выходит из строя раньше положенного срока.

Третья стадия. Наступает, если водитель не предпринял никаких мер. В двигателе перегреваются выпускные клапаны, также отмечается «залегание» поршневых колец, что приводит к износу цилиндров и скорому капитальному ремонту двигателя.

Основной причиной, того что форсунки в двигателе стучат и забиваются, является только некачественный бензин. Ни режим эксплуатации автомашины, ни манера вождения не влияют на ресурс работы инжекторов.

Инжекторы – это сложные и высокоточные механизмы. Стоимость такой детали для современного автомобиля колеблется в пределах от 25 до 170 американских долларов (в зависимости от класса двигателя и производителя). В связи с этим выгоднее при появлении непонятных стуков, прогрессирующей «вялости» и «тупости» автомобиля провести профилактическую чистку форсунок (инжекторов). Такая процедура стоит дешевле, чем покупка нового инжектора или капитальный ремонт двигателя.

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