Рулевое управление автомобиля – схема, устройство работы, неисправности

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Рулевое управление автомобиля – схема, устройство работы, неисправности

Одним из важнейших узлов автомобиля является рулевое управление – предназначается оно для обеспечения движения автотранспорта в заданном направлении. Большинство легковых автомобилей изменяют траекторию своего движения поворачиванием передних колес, так называемый кинематический тип поворота. Также изменить направление движения авто можно подтормаживанием определенных колес. Такой способ взят за основу в работе системы курсовой устойчивости.

Система рулевого управления большинства современных автомобилей состоит из рулевого колеса, рулевой колонки, привода и рулевого механизма.

Рулевое управление автомобиля – схема

Прикладываемое водителем усилие, требуемое для изменения траектории движения машины, воспринимается рулевым колесом и через рулевую колонку передается на рулевой механизм. Кроме этого рулевое колесо еще выполняет и информативную функцию. Сила усилий, требуемых для движения, наличие вибраций в руле дает понять водителю о характере движения и состоянии дороги. Стандарт диаметра рулевого колеса для легкового авто находится в диапазоне от 380 до 425мм, а для грузовых машин такой диапазон составляет 440-550мм. У спортивных автомобилей рулевое колесо немного меньше в диаметре, чем минимальное стандартное для легковых машин.

Рулевая колонка – передающее звено между рулевым колесом и рулевым механизмом. Представлена данная деталь в виде вала с несколькими шарнирными соединениями. Конструктивно рулевое управление (ВАЗ – в частности) продумано таким образом, что в случае аварии, при фронтальном ударе, колонка складывается и таким образом позволяет снизить возможную тяжесть травмирования водителя. Для удобности управления автомобилем положение рулевой колонки можно регулировать по длине и по вертикале. В зависимости от модели автомобиля регулировка может быть электрической или механической. Кроме того, для защиты автомобиля от угона, рулевая колонка оборудуется системой блокировки, опять-таки в зависимости от типа авто она может быть механической или электрической.

Рулевой механизм – еще один элемент рулевого управления автомобиля, который предназначается для увеличения приложенного водителем усилия на рулевое колесо и последующей передаче его на рулевой привод. Функцию рулевого механизма зачастую выполняют различные виды редукторов, которые отличаются разным передаточным числом. Большое распространение в легковых автомобилях получил рулевой механизм реечного типа. Данный тип рулевого механизма состоит из шестерни, установленной на рулевом колесе и зубчатой рейки, которая приводится в движение путем вращения этой шестерни. При вращении водителем рулевого колеса рейка начинает двигаться в одну из сторон и благодаря присоединенным к ней рулевым тягам поворачивает колеса. В некоторых конструкциях рулевого механизма используются рейки с разным шагом зубьев (в средней части рейки зубья имеют меньший шаг). Такая конструктивная особенность делает автомобиль легким в маневрировании. Располагается реечный механизм рулевого управления обычно в подрамнике подвески.

Рулевой механизм

Большинство автопроизводителей с мировым именем (Toyota, Mazda, BMW, Nissan, Mitsubishi, Renault и т.д.) выпускают автомобили, которые оснащены рулевыми механизмами с возможностью управления четырьмя колесами. Такая техническая инновация позволяет автомобилю сохранять устойчивость и обеспечивать лучшую управляемость при движении на высоком скоростном режиме, а также добавляет немало маневренности при движении на средней и малой скоростях. Хочется отметить, что «подруливание» задних колес при высокой скорости движения автомобиля может достигаться и пассивными способами. Так при вхождении автомобиля в поворот резинометаллические элементы задней подвески сжимаются за счет крена кузова, тем самым обеспечивая незначительные углы поворота задних колес.

Рулевой привод – часть рулевого механизма, предназначенная для передачи усилия водителя, необходимого для поворота колес. В задачу привода входит обеспечение оптимального соотношения углов поворота передних колес, а также препятствование их повороту во время работы подвески. Конструктивно рулевой привод зависит от типа применяемой в автомобиле подвески. Наиболее распространен в легковых автомобилях механический привод, состоящий из рулевых шарниров и рулевых тяг. Рулевой шарнир исполняется в шаровом типе, состоит он из корпуса, шарового пальца, вкладышей и защитного чехла. Кроме того шаровой шарнир для удобства эксплуатации выполняется в виде съемного наконечника на рулевой тяге.

Рулевое управление любого автомобиля характеризуется большим количеством кинематических параметров, среди которых основными считаются четыре угла (поперечный и продольный наклон поворотной оси колеса, развал и схождение) и два плеча (стабилизация и обкатка). Если рассматривать конструкцию рулевого управления в общем виде, то этот механизм является компромиссом кинематических параметров, так как он вынужден объединять в себе абсолютно противоречащие друг другу легкость управления и устойчивость движения транспортного средства.

В некоторых автомобилях для уменьшения усилия водителя, расходуемого на поворот рулевого колеса, используется усилитель рулевого управления. Применение такого усилителя снижает физическую нагрузку на руки водителя, обеспечивает быстродействие и точность управления. Усилители рулевого управления в зависимости от вида привода бывают электрические, пневматические и гидравлические.

Современные автомобили, в своем большинстве, обустраиваются гидравлическим усилителем руля. Одной из разновидностей гидравлического усилителя является электрогидравлический тип усилителя. Главное его отличие заключается в том, что гидравлический насос приводится в действие от электродвигателя. В последние годы в мировом автомобилестроении наблюдается увеличение количества выпущенных автомобилей с электрическим усилителем руля (по-другому называют – электроусилитель руля). Электроника такого усилителя позволяет использовать его для автоматического управления транспортным средством, к примеру, при включенной системе автоматической парковки.

Усилитель рулевого управления, который в зависимости от скорости движения меняет поворотное усилие, называется адаптивным усилителем руля. Самым известным видом адаптивного усилителя руля считается электрогидравлический усилитель управления Servotronic.

Но разработчики автокомпаний с мировым именем не стоят на месте и постоянно разрабатывают новые автомобильные системы, помогающие управлять автомобилем. За последние годы компания BMW внедрила систему активного рулевого управления, а Audi систему динамического рулевого управления. В этом типе рулевого управления передаточное число механизма меняется в зависимости от скорости автомобиля.

Исходя из уровня развития автомобильных технологий, можно предположить создание в будущем конструкции рулевого управления без механической связи между рулевым колесом и ведущими колесами, так называемое проводное рулевое управление. В принципе начало внедрения такой системы сдерживает только психологический фактор, который связан с возможностью отказа системы управления в случае аварии.


Неисправности рулевого управления

Часто встречающейся неисправностью этого узла является люфт, который в большинстве случаев устраняется настройкой рулевого механизма. Регулировка или ремонт рулевого управления проводится через прижатие или ослабление рабочих частей механизма специальным винтом, другого типа настройки не предусмотрено. В том случае если люфт не исчезнет, то можно говорить об очевидном износе или поломке деталей рулевого механизма.

По внешним признакам, которые различимы при движении автомобиля, можно диагностировать некоторые неисправности:

- Возникающий при движении автомобиля стук в рулевом механизме указывает на ослабления крепления шаровой системы опор или на износ шарнирных наконечников тяг;

- Биение в руле. Возможные причины: износ деталей рулевых тяг, неправильная балансировка колес или же поломка подшипника рулевой колонки;

- Люфт в рулевом колесе выше допустимых пределов. Возможный износ наконечников тяг, передающей пары или рабочих деталей механизма рулевого управления.

Во всех вышеуказанных случаях нужно проводить ремонт автомобиля. Сделать его можно как самостоятельно, так и в автосервисе. Для выполнения самостоятельного ремонта вам нужно точно диагностировать неисправность, купить требуемые детали или ремкомплект и произвести ремонтные работы.

 

 

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