Принцип работы и правила эксплуатации коробки передач-«механика»

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Современные МКПП выпускаются пяти- и шестиступенчатыми, однако некоторое время назад, еще на заре автомобилестроения, весьма популярны были четырёхступенчатые коробки, сейчас же такие машины – настоящая раритетная техника. Как показала история, механическая коробка и по сей день является самой надежной в использовании, хотя и весьма непростой для начинающего водителя. Особенно тяжело новичкам, севшим за руль машины с «механикой», приходится в пробках, ведь не зря механическую коробку передач называют ручной, ибо он требует частой и синхронной работы рук и ног.

Устройство коробки передач – «механика»

Главные узлы ручной коробки – шестерни и валы, по количеству которых МКПП разделяются на двух- и трехвальные. Чаще всего двухвальные коробки устанавливаются на переднеприводные легковые автомобили, а трехвальные – и на передне-, и заднеприводные, и на грузовые машины.

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Принцип работы МКПП

Входящие в устройство коробки шестеренки представляют собой зубчатые колеса, нанизанные на валы. На различных передачах, при определенном сопряжении друг с другом, шестерни дают разную частоту вращения и различные крутящие моменты. Переключение скоростей совершается лишь при выжатой до упора педали сцепления.

В коробках вышеназванного вида используются три типа валов:

 - ведущий: для соединения с диском сцепления выходит из коробки, передавая крутящий момент на промежуточный вал;

 - промежуточный: находится рядом с ведущим валом, крепится при помощи шестерни. В свою очередь, на промежуточном валу так же присутствует блок шестерней.

 - ведомый: хотя и находится на одной оси с ведущим, но движется абсолютно независимо от него. На ведомом валу располагаются шестерни, не имеющие жесткой сцепки, а между ними – синхронизаторы, закрепленные на валу (они движутся вдоль всего вала). На конце синхронизатора имеются зубцы, которые в процессе полного цикла работы проходят сквозь шестерню ведомого вала, тем самым, образуя сцепление. Если рычаг переключения скоростей находится в нейтральной позиции, то все шестеренки работают вхолостую, при этом ведомый вал остается в неподвижном состоянии, так как зубцы синхронизатора не соединяются с шестерней.

В корпусе самой коробки находятся вилки переключения передач, которые связаны с рукояткой переключения шарнирами. Они-то и передвигают синхронизаторы вдоль валов. Сам же рычаг переключения скоростей, как правило, «выведен» в салон автомобиля и располагается справа от водителя, но может находиться и прямо в коробке. Кстати, в первом варианте будет использоваться условно-дистанционное управление, то есть при помощи тросов или шарнирных рычагов. Данный механизм переключения принято называть «кулисой».

Основные особенности и правила эксплуатации коробки передач-«механика»

Итак, вы сели за руль автомобиля с механической коробкой. Прежде чем завести двигатель, следует убедиться в отсутствии сцепления двигателя и коробки. Проверить это можно двумя способами:

 - слегка «поболтать» селектор КПП – он должен находиться в нейтральном положении;

 - выжать педаль сцепления.

И лишь после этого можно переключать рычаг на первую передачу.

Помните – любые манипуляции с рычагом можно осуществлять только при выжатом до упора сцеплении. Не допускаются резкие движения при переключении, так как подобные действия приведут к значительному сокращению срока службы коробки, тем самым приблизив необходимость её ремонта. Также не стоит прикладывать максимум усилий в переключение рычага – просто отпустите педаль сцепления и выжмите ее вновь.

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Еще один важный момент – переход на повышенные передачи должен осуществляться последовательно, друг за другом, при этом сам момент переключения необходимо выбирать, ориентируясь на показания приборов. Следите за тахометром и спидометром. Кроме того, очень многое зависит и от вашей манеры езды.

В заключение хотелось бы отметить следующее: если отбросить в сторону общепринятые стереотипы относительно сложности управления автомобилем с механической коробкой передач, то со всей ответственностью можно заявить – такие машины все же имеют огромное множество неоспоримых преимуществ по сравнению с той же АКПП.

Прежде всего, это свобода выбора режима вождения. Желаете драйва, хотите почувствовать запах жженой резины и ощутить вибрацию резкого старта? Поверьте, все это возможно только на механике!

Вам нравится спокойная езда, ориентированная на экономичный или, по возможности, минимальный расход топлива? Данный тип коробки способен обеспечить и это.

А, кроме того, вы получите возможность притормаживать двигателем, что, в свою очередь, значительно повысит безопасность движения на скользкой дороге.

Ну и, конечно же, самое главное – цена автомобиля с ручной коробкой передач не идет ни в какое сравнение с машиной-автоматом, ведь коробка передач-«механика» всегда существенно дешевле.

 

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