Диагностика неисправностей в зарядной цепи автомобиля

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В отечественных автомобилях, оснащенных вольтметрами на приборной панели, легко понять заряжен ли аккумулятор и исправна ли зарядная цепь. В исправном автомобиле при включении зажигания и с учетом того, что сторонние потребители отключены, стрелка вольтметра должна находиться в левой части белой шкалы измерительного устройства. При запуске двигателя стрелка должна уйти в оранжевый сектор и довольно таки быстро вернуться опять в белую зону. Такой скачок связывается с падение напряжения в сети из-за работы стартера. С увеличением частоты вращения коленвала стрелка автомобильного вольтметра должна синхронно отклоняться в правую сторону, но в то же время она должна оставаться в пределах белой шкалы.

Компьютерная диагностика

Если при включении зажигания стрелка измерительного устройства отклоняется вправо, но не выходит из оранжевого участка шкалы, то, значит, ваша аккумуляторная батарея плохо заряжена. Если же при запуске двигателя вы видите сильное падение напряжения в цепи и слышите, что стартер плохо раскручивает коленвал, то это может говорить не только о разряженности аккумулятора, но и о плохом контакте в цепи (окисление или ненадежный контакт). При появлении таких симптомов советуем первым делом провести визуальный осмотр батареи. Загрязненная поверхность аккумулятора со следами электролита может приводить к саморазряду батареи. Советуем очистить контакты батареи и наконечники проводов от грязи, подтянуть болты крепления клемм, а также очистить поверхность батареи от электролита и грязи. Обязательно проверьте уровень электролита и его плотность. Если же плотность не соответствует норме, то необходимо поставить батарею на подзарядку.

Еще одна неисправность, которую можно выявить по наблюдению за вольтметром. Если вы запускаете мотор и повышаете обороты коленчатого вала, а стрелка вольтметра реагирует на такие действия с запаздыванием, то это может говорить о пробуксовке ремня генератора. Обязательно отрегулируйте его натяжку, так как такая неисправность может вызвать появление хронической недозарядки аккумулятора, что в итоге может привести к скорому выходу батареи из строя.

Видео: «Проверка автомобиля на предмет утечки тока»

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