Лада Гранта: стучит двигатель при нажатии на газ

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Некоторые автомобилисты сталкивались с таким симптомом – двигатель стучит при нажатии на газ. Причиной появления такого ударного звука может быть детонация. В нашей статье мы хотим рассказать о детонации подробнее.

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Лада Гранта

Детонация в ДВС – это процесс самопроизвольного возгорания горючей смеси в цилиндрах мотора. Такое явление чаще всего наблюдается при резких нагрузках (при нажатии на газ или движении под гору). При нажатии на газ увеличивается количество топливно-воздушной смеси, которая подается в камеру сгорания. После заполнения всего объема цилиндра, смесь подвергается воздействию повышенной температуры и давления. В результате чего, под действием этих факторов, несгоревшая часть смеси превращается в активные соединения (спирты, перекиси, альдегиды). Накопление активных соединений происходит до критического момента, после которого начинают возникать цепные окислительные реакции между ними. В результате это приводит к самопроизвольному воспламенению смеси, которое сопровождается выделением большого количества взрывной энергии. В эпицентре самопроизвольного возгорания (взрыва) отмечается существенное увеличение температуры, волна от очага расходится со скоростью в 1000-2200 м/с. К примеру, волна при нормальном воспламенении смеси достигает скорости всего в 20-30 м/с. В результате ударения взрывных волн о стенки камеры сгорания водитель слышит, как стучит его мотор, кстати, в простонародье это называют «стуком пальцев».

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Взрывная волна при ударении о стенки цилиндров разрушает масляную пленку, которая защищает детали поршневой группы от трения. К тому же ударной волной создается давление до 70 кгс/см2, которого вполне достаточно для нанесения механических повреждений элементам силового агрегата. Впрочем, и это еще не все неприятности, которые появляются от детонации. Ударные волны несут с собой высокую температуру, тем самым вызывая общий перегрев двигателя, из-за которого активно разрушаются его детали. В совокупности все эти неисправности, возникающие в двигателе из-за детонации, несут большие неприятности, которые могут в результате значительно уменьшить моторесурс агрегата.

Факторы, способствующие возникновению детонации

Этот неприятный эффект в двигателе может возникнуть в результате действия многих факторов, главной чертой которых можно считать уменьшение задержки самовоспламенения частей топливно-воздушной смеси. Другими словами скажем, что из-за действий этих факторов в цилиндре образуются благоприятные условия для прохождения быстрых окислительных реакций топливно-воздушной смеси.

2009 Ford Mustang

Далее предлагаем рассмотреть пять основных факторов, вызывающих появление детонации.

1. Горючая смесь. Топливно-воздушная смесь, имеющая соотношение воздуха и топлива 9:1, при попадании в двигатель будет формировать очаги окислительных реакций в дальних уголках камер сгорания.

2. Угол опережения зажигания. При увеличении этого параметра сдвигается пиковая точка давления при сгорании ТВС в сторону к ВМТ, что приводит к общему увеличению общего давления в камере сгорания. Результат – появляется детонация и ваш мотор стучит.

3. Октановое число. Чем меньше октановое число бензина, заливаемого в двигатель, тем выше вероятность возникновения детонации. Объясняется это тем, что при уменьшении октанового числа повышается химическая предрасположенность топлива к окислению. Поэтому чаще всего мы слышим, как стучит мотор, который заправляют 76-м бензином, хотя по паспорту написано, что заправлять нужно АИ-95.

4. Степень сжатия. В этот параметр закладывается соотношение объема цилиндра к полному объему камеры сгорания. Повышение степени сжатия приводит к общему увеличению давления в цилиндрах, что, как вы понимаете, способствует появлению детонации. В связи с этим в двигатель с повышенной степенью сжатия рекомендуют заливать только высокооктановый бензин.

5. Недоработки конструкции камеры сгорания двигателя, которые могут приводить к плохому охлаждению несгоревшей топливной смеси.

В завершение хотелось добавить, чтобы при нажатии на газ вы больше не слышали посторонние стуки, не заправляйтесь на непроверенных АЗС и иногда проводите диагностику всех узлов вашего автомобиля.

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