Самостоятельное извлечение поршневой группы из двигателя

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Замену поршневой группы двигателя внутреннего сгорания можно произвести своими руками в гаражных условиях. Для выполнения этой работы необходимо подготовить гараж: освободить рабочее место для замены поршневой группы и раздобыть весь необходимый инструмент и приспособления.

Перед началом основных действий не забудьте слить моторное масло с двигателя. Первым делом нужно снять головку блока двигателя. Советуем перед началом этой операции визуально осмотреть прокладку головки. Именно по ее состоянию оценивается общее «здоровье» двигателя. Прокладка удаляется, а все прилипшие к блоку кусочки зачищаются – они ни в коем случае не должны попасть в крепежные отверстия. Затем шабером (треугольным напильником с отшлифованными гранями) снимаем нагар с верхней части блока цилиндров. Если не выполнить это действие, то трудно будет определить степень износа цилиндров. Да и к тому же, вы не сможете вытащить поршень – нагар не даст выйти юбке поршня.

Поршни

Поверхность очистили. Замеряем диаметр цилиндра. Используем для этого штангенциркуль (нутромер). Далее необходимо понять общее состояние двигателя – делался ли ему уже капитальный ремонт или он еще «чистый».  Для этого пальцем проводим по границе верхней части цилиндра. Двигаемся снизу вверх, как раз по тому месту, где чистили шабером. Прощупываем, есть ли какая-то ощутимая ступенька в этом месте. Затем прокручиваем коленчатый вал и осматриваем зеркало цилиндра, отыскивая глубокие вертикальные риски. Поставить точный диагноз двигателю можно с помощью нутромера. Необходимо проверить конусность и эллипсность – эти величины не должны превышать 0,03 мм. Визуальным осмотром и на ощупь вы это определить не сможете.

Извлечение поршней

Измеряем диаметр цилиндров. Если двигатель изношен не сильно, то расточка цилиндров не потребуется. Соответственно ненужно будет покупать новые поршневые кольца. Обязательно нужно вынуть старые поршни и хорошенько их осмотреть, возможно, придется их заменить на новые. Чтобы вытащить шатуны с поршнями, нужно снять поддон двигателя. Эта операция займет у вас некоторое время: сначала нужно отвернуть крепления подушек мотора, затем приподнять сам агрегат, что позволит открутить болты крепления поддона. Поддон не стоит убирать далеко, так как его нужно внимательно осмотреть и слить остатки моторного масла. На дне поддона могут находиться обломки колец, части успокоителя цепи, а также много других инородных тел. Обязательно осмотрите масляную пленку на дне поддона. Если вы видите в ней что-то похожее на искры, то это говорит о высоком износе вкладышей. В таком случае без промедлений проверьте состояние шатунных и коренных вкладышей.

После такой диагностики остается подготовить необходимые детали, установить их и провести сборку агрегата в обратной последовательности.

Видео: «Извлечение поршневой группы своими руками»

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